They are machines or major tools necessary to complete a given task. They are items which are essential for the development of any structure from its initial stage till the final stage. They comprise of any appropriate set of tools required to generate the machine.
Lower order machinery and equipment risk controls, such as personal protective equipment (PPE), can prevent injuries, but are generally not as effective as higher order controls, as they rely more on worker behaviour, maintenance programs and supervision.
• Guarding may also serve to mute noise emissions through application of sound absorbing materials. Other emissions, such as lasers, ultraviolet light, bright light or welding flash, can also be safely screened to prevent potential harmful exposure.
A stable work platform, suited to the nature of the work that allows for good posture relative to the work performed, sure footing, safe environment and fall prevention (if a fall may occur), is a basic requirement. For example, cooling towers on building roofs may have poor access, yet must be attended by a service person at predictable times for water treatment, chemical dosing or monitoring of automated dosing equipment.